The term sniper was developed during the 19th century during the British occupation of India. The
term referred to a hunter of snipes, a game bird.
Ghillie suits were developed by Scottish game wardens during the 19th century to catch poachers.
Hiram Berdan (North) and Robert E. Lee (South) were the first in history to set up units of
designated marksman or sharpshooters, this happened during the American Civil War.
The Germans, during WWI, were the first to use specially trained snipers.
The Russians were the first to employ snipers in two-man teams.
Hisketh Pritchard started the first Allied sniper school. (During WWI in the UK, trained both
British and American snipers.)
Kipling devised the KIMs game for use by Canadian Snipers.
The best estimate as to the average amount of rounds expended per kill in the Vietnam Conflict
(For U.S. Army Soldiers) is 200,000. The average rounds expended per kill by U.S. Army
snipers in Vietnam was 1.3
The first U.S. Army sniper school was set up in 1954-55 during the Korean war (though after the
cease fire) by the AMU (Army Marksmanship Unit)
The current U.S. Army sniper school was established in 1987
There is a sign at the USMC sniper school that reads "The average rounds expended per kill with
the M16 in Vietnam was 50,000. Snipers averaged 1.3 rounds. The cost difference was $2300
v. 27 cents."
In World War II, German snipers recieved the following rewards:
50 Kills - Wrist Watch
100 Kills - Hunting Rifle
150 Kills - A personal hunting trip with Heinrich Himmler
The U.S. Army determined that the average soldier will only hit a man size target 10% of the time
at 300 meters with the M16A2 rifle. The U.S. Army standard for snipers is to hit 90% first
round hits at 600 meters with the M24 SWS. That is at least an 1800% improvement over the
The most kills achieved by a female sniper was by Lyudmila M. Pavlichenko, a Russian sniper in
WWII. She is credited with killing 309 enemy soldiers.
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